When I first meet Dutch winemaker Stan Beurskens, I’ve already heard quite a bit about him. He’s one of very few Netherlands producers farming organically, he’s an interesting character, he likes to work with unusual grape varieties,and so forth. Our first exchange therefore baffles me:

Me: “I saw there is no organic certification on the bottles – are you in conversion?”

Stan: “No, we’re not organic anymore – we gave that up two years ago.”

Stan Beurskens

Stan Beurskens

After a bit more conversation, we get to the nub of it “The problem is that organic [certification] is just about regulation, not about philosophy. The regulations were getting in the way.”  In fact, Beurskens is tackling one of the organic grower’s holy grails at his Wijngaard Sint Martinus estate in Limberg, South Netherlands – how to reduce or even eliminate the use of copper.

Bordeaux mixture

Copper, most usually applied as a copper sulphate contact spray (when mixed with lime it’s called “Bordeaux mixture”) is still the only effective non-synthetic treatment for downy mildew (peronospera) or powdery mildew (oidium). Both ailments are common in more northerly European winegrowing regions, or indeed anywhere with copious rain and humidity levels. It’s a thorn in the side for committed ecologists, as organic farming focuses on not putting anything noxious into the soil. Copper is admittedly used in decreasing quantities – EU legalization for organic producers now only permits an average of 6 kg per hectare per year, but there are still worries about it building up in the soil.

Mitigation against excess copper usage is hard work. Many committed organic growers confirm that lowering yields, and concentrating on meticulous vineyard management can reduce the chances of mildew setting in, but there’s no silver bullet. At Radikon, in Friuli Collio, Italy, experiments with propolis (bee glue) as a fungicide are under way. Everyone is looking for an alternative – organic proponents are probably sick of being taken to task for this one chink in the armour.

“It’s just water”

Beurskens has combined forces with a small number of North American viticulturists to pilot an innovative new solution – ozone. Ozone-enriched sprays (where oxygen molecules are split to transform from O2 to O3) have long been used for everything from cleaning swimming pools to disinfecting oak barrels in the winery. What’s new is the idea of spraying ozone onto vines, something which has been pioneered by fellow Dutchman Ernie Wilmink and his company Agriozein.

The theory is captivating, even if Beursken’s assertion that “it’s just water” is simplistic. Ozone is hugely oxidative, and capable of destroying the cell walls of bacteria within seconds. As such, it is a significantly more effective disinfectant than chlorine (hence the popularity with swimming pool owners). With a half-life of 25 mins, ozone reverts safely back to oxygen very swiftly, so there are no residues to worry about either.

What about the practice? Beurskens told me “It’s effective, but not on every grape variety” – and there are quite a few to worry about at Sint Martinus. Beurskens is committed to growing a number of newer crosses and hybrids, which he feels give his winery more of a unique selling position.  So amongst Pinot Noir and Cabernet Franc you’ll also find Monarch, Pinotin, Cabernet Cortis and Souvignier Gris to name just a few. Sharp-eyed readers will note that these new varieties are bred to be more disease-resistant on their own.

This may not yet be a perfect solution – the equipment to convert water into ozone isn’t cheap, and ozone’s volatility means the conversion process has to take place in the field – Agriozein sells a sprayer/ozonator unit at around $25,000. Concerns have also been voiced about potential leaf damage to the vines.

sint martinus - francisca brutNever mind the science…

No discussion of new techniques would be complete without at least a brief review of the output, and Beursken’s wines seem to be building a local following. I tasted three bottles from his range, all of which were palatable and competently made, if not mindblowing. The pick of the bunch was the traditional method Francisca Brut, a rosé sparkler with nutty red fruit and a crisp finish.

Beursken has a realistic perspective on the Dutch wine industry’s status: “it’s like the UK was 10 years ago – no-one believed you could make good wine there, but you can”. I don’t doubt that with inquisitive, innovative minds like him, that potential will increasingly be realised – and if copper usage can be eradicated in the process, there’ll really be a reason to crack open the Francisca Brut and celebrate.

About The Author

Simon J Woolf

Simon is an award-winning English wine and food writer, currently based in Amsterdam. He writes mostly, but not exclusively about organic, biodynamic and natural wines. Fermented grape juise has been his muse for the last 15 years. Originally he just drunk the stuff, then started studying, and finally got the urge to communicate in 2011, starting with www.themorningclaret.com. Simon contributes regularly to Decanter magazine, Meininger Wine Business International and other publications.

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8 Responses

  1. awaldstein

    Thanks for this articulate reminder that through the crazy busyness of my life I’m at my core a wine enthusiast with seriously geeky dna.

    Interesting generally as the use of copper and also the overuse of carbon based machinery like tractors are the two pieces of organic farming that as you say are a thorn in a philosophical model.

    The phrase that stands out though is this one:

    “The problem is that organic [certification] is just about regulation, not about philosophy”

    I’m no luddite and understand the intent but this is a larger and more interesting topic.

    I get philosophy driving action and impacting the gestalt of the resulting product. But being a bit steeped in the food business lately, it is also clear that from the consumer side, storied motivations of our hero producers aside, assurance and health of the product are what certification are really about. Incomplete, compromise, top down government regulation or not.

    What does this statement mean to you?

    • Simon Woolf

      I’m with you on this Arnold. I think certification is crucial in terms of assurance, and normally I’d be quite sceptical about a producer who sidesteps it. However, in my admittedly brief conversation with Stan, his experiments with ozone were much more interesting, and I felt showed a real intent to try to make his farming have the minimum environmental impact on the soil.

  2. US Viticulturist

    Haven’t seen any evidence that ozone in the vineyard works. Would like to see the manufacturer support some real trials with plant pathologists. So far he seems resistant, and prefers testimonials.

    • Simon Woolf

      Well, Stan seemed pretty positive about it, while not claiming it was an overarching solution.

      I’m not yet clear if there’s only the one manufacturer of the equipment, I couldn’t find any patent information – and after all the technique of using ozone as an anti-bacterial is well known.

      • US Viticulturist

        grape pathogens have different biology. Powdery mildew micelia develop on surface, so one might expect ozone (which is ephemeral, lasts only until it dries) to have some effectiveness. Not so downy mildew, which develops internally in tissues. (there are others as well, such as black rot and phomopsis). So one might expect different results with internal pathogens. Applying ozone to enclosed barrels to sanitize them is quite different than applying to plant tissue in the field. So I’d like to see some evidence about activity against specific grape diseases.

  3. Ozone for Grape Vines? | Houston Wine

    […] Copper sulfate has long been sprayed on grape vines to fight powdery mildew.  However, it often builds up in the soil causing worry to organic farmers.  A Dutch vineyard owner is now working with a handful of growers in the United States to substitute ozone for copper sulfate.  Read about their efforts >>here<<. […]

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  5. Jai Ganesh

    can Bordeaux mixture be vapourd so tht it can be easily sprayed on plants..